Golf Front View with Hood DownConfiguration of Controller and MotorNew CALB 60 AH cells in the crateTwo Liter gas engine removedLithium Pack all Connected and in useA-pillar Three gauge setup97 X CALB 60 AH cells in placeVW Golf on Display
OwnerDavid Crow
LocationSan Diego, California United States map
Vehicle1998 Volkswagen Golf
sedan, white, 122K miles driven prior to
MotorAzure Dynamics/Solectria AC24LS 3-Phase AC
85 lbs, air cooled,
47 KW peak, 92 Nm peak
DrivetrainAZD AC24LS AC motor, EA adapter plate,
refurbished VW clutch, 5 speed manual
transmission, FWD
ControllerAzure Dynamics/Solectria DMOC445
Highly configurable using the serial port
data interface. I customized the power
levels, the regen points, the regen KW,
the low battery power cut-back, and a few
other tweaks.
Batteries97 CALB/Skyenergy CAFI60, 3.20 Volt, Lithium Iron Phosphate
Iron Phosphate formula prismatic cells.
Sixty AH. 4.4 lbs each. These are a recent
replacement of 24 AGM lead-acid batteries in
the original conversion.
System Voltage310 Volts
ChargerManzanita Micro PFC-20
20 Amps, 120 to 240 Volt AC input. Chosen
for input AC Voltage flexibility and high
DC voltage out. charging at 240 VAC is
reasonably quick. recover about 13 miles
of range in an hour.
HeaterCeramic cigarette lighter plug-in. un-
tested during winter conditions. May
install ceramic element inside dash at a
later date.
DC/DC ConverterIota DLS-220-55
Originally designed for high AC to low DC
voltage, but, proven good fit for high DC
to low DC applications.
InstrumentationWestberg DC Amps, Pack Voltage, and
Accessory Voltage. E-xpert Pro for AMP HOUR
Top Speed84 MPH (135 KPH)
Accelerate in 1st gear up to 25 mph.
cruise in 2nd up to 45 mph, 3rd gear
beyond that.
AccelerationZero to sixty in about 15 seconds. I use
first, second and third gear.
Range65 Miles (104 Kilometers)
Depends on my driving habit. It's fun to
zip around town in 1st and 2nd. Max range
run has been 64 miles on about 50 AH out.
CALBs test out at about 110% of stated
Watt Hours/Mile260 Wh/Mile
An in-car calculation of amps times
volts results in (50A*310V)= 260 Whr/mi
at 60 MPH - Level cruising in third
gear. Otherwise, zipping around town
and the hills of San Diego requires
about 290 Whr per mile from the wall
outlet. When my wife drives, it's more
like 350!
I'm using a P3 International Kill-a-
watt meter upstream of my charger to
EV Miles
Start:122,343 Miles (196,849 Kilometers)
Current:142,013 Miles (228,498 Kilometers)
Total:19,670 Miles (31,649 Kilometers)
Seating Capacityfour passenger, four door
Curb Weight2,600 Pounds (1,181 Kilograms)
Removed 600 lbs of I.C.E. parts.
Regained 200 lbs of motor, controller
and other components. Gained 430 lbs of
TiresTiger Paw Touring, nothing special - just
what was on sale.
Conversion TimeEight months of part time effort by Bob
Van Gorder and several delays in acquiring
parts and troubleshooting.
Conversion CostCar with repairs and new tires: $4000.
All Components, Parts, and
Refurbishments: $15000. In general, AC
systems are more costly than a DC
system. Reworked clutch. recent upgrade
to CALB batteries cost $7275.
Additional FeaturesVacuum system for power brakes. Electro-hydraulic pump
for power steering with ON/OFF switch on dashboard.
E-xpert Pro AH meter. Regenerative Braking
ON/OFF switch and Econ-Normal-Performance selector switch
with Azure Controller on the center console. I use the
switches a lot. Power level select to extend range when I don't
need max power.
Great collaboration working with professional installer, Bob
Van Gorder, in Ramona California. Road tests started in
April 2009. Great assist from Azure Dynamics for details of
controller operations. More troubleshooting than
expected, but, my EV grin is still very real. I am gaining
a lot of knowledge on all aspects of this project and the
components involved.
In March 2010, started charging from my 240V 30 amp outlet
in the garage. Can now get to a twelve amp charge. Full
recharge would take about four hours.

code by jerry