Battery rack-backelliptical 52T chainring Battery rack-frontcharged upOpened motorNew battery rack
OwnerWarren Berger
Owner's Other EVsPedal assist electric recumbent cargo bike
2017 Chevy Bolt LT
LocationVirginia United States map
Web/EmailWebPage email image
Vehicle Late model (1991-2001) "Iowa built" Linear LWB
Started life as a 622/406, USS, LWB
recumbent. Has been rebuilt as many
things, including a rowbike. Now a dual
26" wheel, above-seat-steered, mid-drive,
human/electric hybrid.
Motor MAC 350 watt, front motor, w/disc mount Brushless DC

Emissions Free is no longer offering
the 350 watt MAC front motor as a bare
motor, only in a kit. A great motor,
it has worked flawlessly for over 7K
miles at its rated power.
Drivetrain350 watt continuous, 500 watt peak, MAC
geared front hub motor, mounted as a
mid-drive. A 52T oval chainring drives
the hub shell, acting as a passive
jackshaft, from the left side, until
the throttle is opened, and the motor
and 5:1 planetary gear engage the
roller bearing clutch. There is a 15T
fixed sprocket bolted on either side of
the hub shell. The rear chain, on the
right, goes to a 12-34, 8 speed

There is no freewheel between the
cranks, and the motor, by design. I am
a 160 pound, 65 year old, life-time
bicyclist. No motor-only riding
needed, or desired.
Controller 6 fet 4110, 36-72V Infineon sensorless controller

Run WOT, except from a stop. Pulling
5-15 amps, it remains barely warm.
BatteriesPing 36V 30AH V2.5 LiFePO4 Battery Pack, 36.00 Volt, Lithium Iron Phosphate
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shrink wrapped rectangular twin-pack,
25# weighed
40.4v at BMS red LED cut-off (where I
normally stop)
44.4v max. charge w/charger, and LED's
cycling on-off (this "surface charge"
will get me an extra 4 miles with this
super-efficient system)
39.5v-38.5v, under load, down to 80%
System Voltage36 Volts
Charger Satiator
Running two, at 5 amps each, in parallel.
Best chargers made!

Heater70 and above...shorts and tee shirt
65-70...shorts, tee, windbreaker
50-65...long pants, sweatshirt,
earmuffs,light gloves, windbreaker
45-50...long johns, long pants, plastic
bags over socks, sweatshirt, fiberfill
vest, windbreaker, balaclava, ski
below 45...ride my roadbike, way less

Cycle Analyst, stand-alone, earlier
small screen version

Can't imagine an e-bike without one.
Top Speed28 MPH (45 KPH)
In top gear, level ground, no wind, at
my preferred cadence, about 90 rpm.

Above about 32 mph, down hill and WOT,
my motor is no longer keeping up with
the drivetrain. The roller clutch
drops out, and the motor and planetary
gear set are spinning for nothing. At
this point the freewheeling motor is
pulling about 50 watts. When I am
going down a long hill, and see the
watts dropping to 100, I close the
throttle. At that point half of the
energy is going just to turn the motor
and gears. Why bother?

Single digit downhills and tailwinds,
reduce my load, and allow spinning
comfortably to 120 rpm, about 38 mph.
Above that speed I coast and watch for
deer, and wild turkeys.
AccelerationAt a stoplight, keeping the CA readout
between 350-500 watts, shifting every few
pedal revolutions, I can give dump trucks
a run for their money, across the
Range100 Miles (160 Kilometers)

80-100 miles

There are a number of variables with
this system. For example, charging
until the charger and BMS LED's are
cycling on-off adds 4 miles, but I
typically don't charge that high to
extend battery life. I can run out a
full 30 amp hours, after 18 months
riding, but typically stop at 24 amp
hours, to extend battery life.
Temperature, wind, how peppy I am
feeling, and how hard I push the motor,
all effect range. It is mostly smooth,
rolling, single-digit grade, asphalt
here, with some short 10-15% grades
thrown in. I range between 9-12
Wh/mile. In our rolling terrain, the
motor runs about two thirds of the
time. My average speed for a ride is
between 18-25 mph.

Watt Hours/Mile11 Wh/Mile
Over 7,500 miles, my overall average has
been 11 Wh/mile, and 20 mph.
EV Miles
Current:30,135 Miles (48,487 Kilometers)
    As of 7/18/2018
Seating Capacity1 adult
Curb Weight72 Pounds (32 Kilograms)
Started out at 73.5 pounds, but lost 2
pounds going from bottom bracket drive to
mid-drive configuration.
Tires26 x 1.125 (599-28 ISO) high pressure
Conversion TimeSeveral weeks initially. Spent about a
year making refinements.
Conversion CostAbout $1,800, including $500, years
earlier, for the used bike. Another,
approximately, $200 was spent on "learning
Additional FeaturesThe 15 tooth fixed cogs, from VeloSolo,
made this design
possible with a normal size chainring.


Love the PP45 AMP connectors.


My battery resides in one of my 40 year
old (REI?)
panniers. It fit like it was made for it!

Stan's Tire Sealant works. I run it in
the Schrader
valve tubes on this bike. They go soft
(~40 psi)when
punctured, but don't deflate.

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07-18-18 Rear wheel freehub seized up at
30,125 miles.

01-01-18 Cold December hurt mileage.

62 mile lunch ride, 75 degrees today.
Heard Bing Crosby singing, "I'm dreaming
of a white Christmas" on the patio of the

46 months, 20,000 miles, three inner
tubes, four shifter
cables, six sets of tires, six sets of
chains, 255 kWh from
the wall.

$10 tubes
$12 cables
$34 electricity
$210 tires
$210 chains
$476 total=$0.0238 per mile

Replaced fourth shifter cable. This one
lasted 7365 miles.

Found broken throttle wire. Flexed cable.
Works fine over
800 miles so far.

1,416 miles since getting back on the
bike. Throttle died on
yesterday's ride at mid-point of 89 mile
ride. Jumped
throttle connector with metal twist-tie,
and used brake kill
switch to cut throttle. Worked fine for
low power e-bike.

First ride since I broke my collarbone,
and shoulder blade in
a dog encounter on my pedal roadbike in
mid-October. Lost at
least a thousand miles for the year. :-(

Three years on the road, as of today.
Still going strong.

Just back from a great three day ride.
See page 8.
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Was off the bike for a month. Good to be
back. Loving my
new GrinTech Satiator charger. Combines
the functions of the
Kill-A-Watt, and two old paralleled
chargers into one water
resistant, vibration resistant, carry
along unit!

Repacked wheel bearings. Used synthetic
moly/lithium grease.

Overcast, cold winter. Only rode 19
times, 1047 miles from
the first day of winter to the first day
of spring. Will be
installing my 5th set of tires and chains,
in another 330

Lost 7 weeks waiting for sheet metal shop
to shear and bend
up new battery box. Old one was cracked
for six months,
finally failed. This one much sturdier

Been getting in some longer rides since
gaining the security
of the sensorless controller. Longest so
far was 114.8 miles.

103 miles on my new sensorless controller.
No more worries
about fragile hall sensors.

Opened it up. No condensation.
Everything appears like new.
Thinking of going to a sensorless

Turns out the short in the Hall sensor was
caused by
condensation. Back to running fine,
without replacing

Down for repairs. A motor Hall sensor
finally failed.

It appears we have gone to binary seasons
in Virginia...the
cold/damp/windy season, and the
hot/dry/windy season.

Took the first ride of spring yesterday.
Appears it will be
the last for over a week. The scientists
were right.

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January, February were pretty bad for
rainy, windy. Only 254 miles. Replaced
52T elliptical
chainring with 50 T round.

I had to re-tension the spokes several
times in the first
100 miles, as I would do on any other
bike. I have
always been a very cautious rider,
avoiding potholes, and
slowing to a walk over railroad crossings.
And I run
good quality components (at least 105, or
Deore level,
butted DT spokes, brass nipples, eyeleted
double wall
rims). But I am impressed at how well the
wheels have
held up, given the weight and speed of
this rig.

I have settled into replacing tires, and
chains about
ever 3,500 miles. They could probably go
50% further,
but that would incur wear on other costly
parts, and lead
to possible breakdowns along the road.

I am often 50 miles from home, and as a
inclined guy, I don't want to have to call
my wife to
pick me up.

So far I have replaced a derailleur cable,
several chain
quick-links, and fixed three flats out on
rides with this

The cable fatigued because, initially, I
was shifting
more than I normally would on a bike,
trying to keep it
right at 350 watts. As I gained more
confidence in the
system, I went back to my normal riding

The quick-links broke because I was
downshifting at WOT.
I now close the throttle while I
downshift. I still
upshift at WOT, as dropping the chain onto
sprockets is much less stressful on the

The three flats were all on the same rear
tire. It
should have been one flat, but I didn't
boot the tire,
after the first flint put a big hole in
the casing. Of
course, other stuff found their way into
that hole.
After the third flat, I put in the boot,
which I carry
with me for just such flats...Duh! The
tire went 2000
more miles with no further problems.

I fully expect this rig to run 5-10 years
without major
repairs...if I don't get run over first.

I want to say that Li Ping at Ping
Battery, Paul at
Emissions Free, and Justin Lemore of Grin
are all great guys to deal with. They
made a scary,
first time venture into e-bikes a real

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